Tuesday, 2 September 2014

wʊlfgæŋ æmədeɪəs ...

... no, not exactly! But almost.

credit: www.mowsart.co.uk

Thursday, 28 August 2014

diurnus

credit: Joel Montes de Oca; licence: https://creativecommons.org
 I'm currently marking the pronunciations of the students in my Spoken English (aka phonetics) classes. One of the recurring mistakes is the pronunciation of the word 'journalism'. The correct one is /ˈʤɜːn(ə)lɪz(ə)m/ (with an additional /r/, if you're aiming at a hyper-rhotic accent). The segment /ʤɜːn/ is used in all of the following words (plus their inflectional and derivational variants):
  • journal
  • journalese
  • journalism
  • journalise, -ize
  • journalist
  • journalistic
  • journey
  • journeyman
  • journo

Wednesday, 27 August 2014

Measure for Measure

credit: Mason Bryant licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

  1. | fɔː ɡɪlz meɪk wʌn paɪnt |
  2. | tuː paɪnts meɪk wʌn k(w)ɔːt |
  3. | tuː barəlz meɪk wʌn hɒɡzhed |
  4. | tuː hɒɡzhedz meɪk wʌn paɪp |
  5. | tuː paɪps meɪk wʌn tʌn |
  6. | fɔː peks meɪk wʌn bʊʃl̩ |
  7. | wʌn mɪnɪt haz twenti eɪt skruːpl̩z |
  8. | wʌn hʌndrəd ənd fɔːti fɔː skweə laɪnz ɑː wʌn skweər ɪntʃ |

Greetings from days gone by!

Tuesday, 26 August 2014

how to transcribe English speech

I found this booklet in the estate of my wife's aunt. 


It's from 1945 and purports to teach Everyday English. One thing that amuses me is the transcription system, which is geared to the German reader. 


Look at the way the <th> is transcribed and you will understand why so many Jerries replace /θ, ð/ by /s, z/. Some still seem to have the booklet in one of their desk drawers.


"Ve have ße means to make u talk"

(Mind the use of the definite article!)

Friday, 15 August 2014

video-cum-transcription

credit: Dave Rogers; licence: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

If you care to click this link you'll find a video extract from House of Cards (the UK TV series) with subtitles in IPA transcription. Jack Windsor Lewis and myself checked the transcriptions to see whether we'd agree with what Ms Kozikowska had transcribed. You can find Jack's version here. I've collated his and my version for you to compare.


Jack Windsor Lewis
Kraut
1.||
(a) aɪ ˈdu: ɪn`dʒɔɪ ði:z vɪzɪts tə ðə ˏpælɪs |
(b) ə ˎglɑ:s əv ˏʃeri→ɪə lɪtl vɜ:bəl ˏfensɪŋ |
(c) ə→ænd ə ˈbreɪsɪŋ ˈdəʊsəv ˈheɪtrɪd əŋ→n kənˎtempt |
(d) ˈməʊst ɪn`vɪgəreɪtɪŋ |
(e) ænd tə `deɪðeəz gəʊɪŋ→n tə bi ə lɪtl `ekstrə tri:t [ə] |
(f) ˎnəʊ aɪ ˈwəʊnt ˎspɔɪl ɪt | ˈweɪt ən ˎsi:...
In (c) the first  ‘and’ was not pronounced with a schwa, ie /ə/, and the second did not involve the assimilation shown. At ‘going to’ in (e) he said /gəʊntə/. In (f) the final /t/ of ‘wait’ is not released so it’s followed by a syllabic /n/ not preceded by a schwa.
1.
(a) aɪ ˈduː ɪn`dʒɔɪ ðiːz vɪzɪts tə ðə ˏpælɪs |
(b) ə ˎglɑːs əv ˏʃerɪ | ə lɪtl vɜːbəl ˏfensɪŋ |
(c) ænd ə ˈbreɪsɪŋ ˈdəʊs əv `heɪtrɪd ən kənˎtempt |

(d) ˈməʊst ɪn`vɪgəreɪtɪŋ |
(e) ænd tə `deɪ ðəz gəʊɪn tʊ bɪ ə lɪtl `ekstrə triːtə |

(f) ˎnəʊ | aɪ ˈwəʊnt ˎspɔɪl ɪt | ˈweɪtn ˎsiː |
In (e) “there’s” is reduced to /ðəz/; “to” has an /ʊ/ despite the /b/ of “be”, and “be” – like in “sherry” – is pronounced with a KIT vowel.
2 || ˈdu: gəʊ ɪn | mɪstə ˏɜ:kət
2. ˈduː gəʊ ɪn | mɪstə ˏɜːkət
There’s no linking-r in “Mr”.
3 || `θæŋk ju
3. `θæŋk ju |
4 || praɪm ˏmɪnɪstə [The first /m/ is omitted.]
4. pr ˏmɪnɪstə |
5 || heləʊ [maɪkrə?] [This is not clear.]
5. heləʊ maɪkrɒf |
The /t/ of “Mycroft” is inaudible.
6 || aɪm `ʃɔ: hi:z ˎɒntə sʌmθɪŋ
6. aɪm `ʃɔː hiːz ˎɒntə sʌmθɪŋ |
7 || wɒt dɪd hi ˎseɪ
[An aitch has been omitted by the transcriber.]
7. wɒt dɪd (h)ɪ ˎseɪ |
The aitch may be missing. If it was pronounced it is masked by the click-clacking noise of the lady’s heels.
8 || `nʌθɪŋ | [dʒəs?] ðæt `smaɪl əv hɪz ju ˊnəʊ | `krɒkədaɪlz smaɪl laɪk ðæt [No /z/ and no /ð/]
8. `nʌθɪŋ | dʒs ð̥æʔ `smaɪl əv hɪz ju ˊnəʊ | `krɒkədaɪlsˑmaɪl laɪk ðæ(t) |
The “just” is pronounced with a whispered voice, the “that” has final glottaling. “Crocodiles smile”: at the word boundary there’s a voiceless /s/ slightly longer than a single /s/. The final /t/ of “that” is masked by noise. I do hear a /ð/ in “that”.
9 || ˈmɪsər ˎɜ:kətɪts ˈsʌm ˎwi:ks naʊsɪns ju: ˈhɪntɪd təˈmi: ju wə ˈplænɪŋ tə ˈkɔ:lə dʒenərəl ɪ ˎlekʃən
[‘general’ has no medial schwa & ‘election’ no /ɪ/ which is replaced by lengthening (‘doubling’) of the previous /l/]
9. ˈmɪsr ˎɜːkət | ɪts ˈsʌm ˎwiːks naʊ sɪns juː ˈhɪntɪd tə ˈmiː ju wə ˈplænɪŋ tə ˈkɔːl ə dʒenrəˎlːekʃn |
The initial “Mr” lacks the /tə/. There’s a long /l/ at the word boundary of “general election”. “[e]lection” has no schwa in the final syllable.
10 || `jes sɜ:aɪ bɪˈli:v ɪˎt ɪz
[It’s completely normal for speakers to treat the phrase ‘it is’ as if it were a single word whose second syllable begins with (aspirated) /t/. Compare ‘at all’ as treated at Turn 18.]
10. `jes sɜː | aɪ bɪ`liːv ɪt ɪz |
11 || aɪd bi glæd əv `sʌm aɪdɪər əv ðə deɪtʃu hæv ɪm ˏmaɪnd
11. aɪd bi glæd əv `sʌm aɪdɪər əv ðə deɪtʃu hæv ɪm ˏmaɪnd |
12 ||
(a) aɪm `ʃɔ: ju wʊd `jes |
(b) ˈændəf→v ˈkɔ:sˈju: wɪl bi:ðə ˈfɜ:s tə bi ɪn`fɔ:md |
(c) ˈbʌtðər ə ˈsʌm ɪm ˌpɒndərəblz |
(d) ən sʌm pɑ:liəmentəri bɪznɪs stɪl tə bi ɪˎnæktɪd
12.
(a) aɪm `ʃɔː ju wʊd `jes |
(b) ˈænd əv ˈkɔːs ˈjuː wɪl biː ðə ˈfɜːs tə bi ɪn`fɔːmd |
(c) ˈbʌt ðər ə ˈsʌm ɪm ˌpɒndərəblz
(d) ən sʌm pɑːliəmɘntri bɪznɪs stɪl tə bi ɪnˎæktɪd
“[p]arliamentary” has a mid-high schwa in its – in my counting – penultimate syllable.
13 || ˈwɒt ˈbɪznɪsɪf aɪ meɪ ˏɑ:sk
13. ˈwɒd ˈbɪznɪs ɪf aɪ meɪ ˏɑˑsk
“What” is realised as /wɒd/ and “ask” has a fairly short BATH vowel.
14 ||
(a) əf→v `kɔ:s ju meɪ sɜ:jɔ: pə`rɒgətɪv |
(b) wi: ə [ɑ — ‘are’ is praps a shortened realisation of the phoneme /ɑː/ ]  | wi: θɔ:t əbaʊt teɪkɪŋ ənʌðə lʊk ət ðə `sɪvɪl lɪst |
(c) əmʌŋst ʌðə ´θɪŋz.
[It was quite right to show that the first possible /r/ of prerogative has, as so often, been elided. ‘Civil’ has no second /ɪ/.]
14.
(a) əv `kɔːs ju meɪ sɜː | jɔː pə`rɒgətɪv |
(b) wiː ɑˑ
(c) wiː θɔːt əbaʊt teɪkɪŋ ənʌðə lʊk ət ðə `sɪvl lɪst |
(d) əmʌŋst ʌðə ´θɪŋ
15 || ɑ:ftər ə ˈfʊl ˈskeɪl rɪˏvju:əʊnli ə ´jɪə→ɜːr əgəʊ [ ‘Only’, as so very often,  has no /l/. ‘Year’ is /jɜː/.]
15. ɑːftər ə ˈfʊl ˈskeɪl rɪˏvjuː əʊni ə ´jɪər əgəʊ
“[y]ear” has the NEAR vowel.
16 || ˎm `jes ˈwi:ˈθɔ:t əˈbaʊtˈhævɪŋ əˈnʌðə ˎlʊk
16. `m | `jes ˈwiː ˈθɔːt əˈbaʊt ˈhævɪŋ əˈnʌðə ˎlʊk
17 || aɪ trʌs jɔ: nɒt bi:ɪŋ vɪnˏdɪktɪv mɪstər ɜ:kət
17. aɪ ˈtrʌs jʊə nɒt biːɪŋ vˏdɪktɪv mɪstər ɜːkət
“[y]ou’re” contains the CURE vowel and “vindictive” has no vowel in its first syllable.
18 ||
(a) nɒt ə`t ɔ:l sɜ: nɒt ə`t ɔ:l |
(b) ˈfɑ: ˎbi: ɪt frəm ðɪs ˎgʌvənmənt tə `lɒp ə`nʌðə `mɪljən ɔ: `səʊ |
(c) `ɒf ə dɪ`zɜ:vɪŋ `rɔɪl `fæmɪli ɒn ðə `spi:ʃəs `pri:tekst |
(d) əv `beɪbiːz `stɑ:vɪŋɪn ðə `stri:ts
[At (b) ‘government’ as usual has no first /n/. At (c) ‘family’ has no /ɪ/. At (d) ‘babies’ ends with /-iːz/.]
18.
(a) nɒt ə`tɔːl sɜː nɒt ə`tɔːl |
(b) ˈfɑː ˎbiː ɪt frəm ðɪs ˎgʌvəmənt tə `lɒp ə`nʌðə `mɪljən ɔː `səʊ |
(c) `ɒf ə dɪ`zɜːvɪŋ `rɔɪl `fæmɪli ɒn ðə `spiːʃəs `priːtekst |
(d) əv `beɪbiˑz `stɑːvɪŋ ɪn ðə `striːts |
I do hear an /ɪ/ in “family”; the vowel in the final syllable of “babies” is fairly long, although I don’t think this justifies a colon.
19 || əʊ fə `gɒdz→t seɪk mæn | ˈðæt sɔ:t əv tʃi:p rɪmɑ:ks ʌnˏwɜ:ði əv ju |
[The word ‘God’s’ is reduced to /gɒt/.]
19.
əʊ fə `gɒt seɪk mæn | ˈðæt sɔːt əv tʃiːp rɪmɑːks ʌnˏwɜːði əv ju |
20 ||
(a) aɪ ˈhɪə→hjɜːjuv bi:n ˈhævɪŋˈsi:krɪt ˎtɔ:ks wɪð `ɒpəzɪʃn `ˏli:dəz |
(b) ən ˈwʌn ɔ: ˈtu:əv ðə les `trʌstwɜ:ði `ˏmembəz | (c) əv maɪ ˈəʊm→n ˎpɑ:ti |
(d) ɪz ˈðɪs ˏtru: 
[Compare Turn 15 with ‘year’ as /jɜː/.]
20.
(a) aɪ ˈhɪə  juv bɪn ˈhævɪŋ ˈsiːkrɪt ˎtɔːks wɪð `ɒpəzɪʃn `ˏliːdəz |
(b) ən ˈwʌn ɔ ˈtuː əv ðə les `trʌstwɜːði `ˏmembəz |
(c) əv maɪ ˈəʊn ˎpɑːti |
(d) ɪz ˈðɪs ˎtruː |
21 || aɪ hæv ə `pɜ:fɪkt ˎraɪt | aɪ wəd rɪ`gɑ:d ɪ t əz maɪ `dʒu:ti | tu ɪnfɔ:m maɪself əv `ɔ:l `ʃeɪdzəv pəlɪtɪkl ə`pɪnjən
[the words ‘it as’ are slightly slurred into /tz/ with syllabic /z/]
21.
aɪ hæv ə `pɜːfɪkt ˎraɪt | aɪ wəd rɪ`gɑːd əz maɪ `dʒ̥uːti | tu ɪnfɔːm maɪself əv `ɔːl `ʃeɪdz əv pəlɪtɪkl ə`pɪnjən |
The phrase “it as” is fused into /əz/.
22 ||
(a) ˎ jesbət ˈðæt ˎraɪt `hɑ:dli→ɪ ɪk`stendz |
(b) tə kənspaɪrɪŋ ɪn tʃelsi ˏrestrɔ:nts→ɔ̃:z |
(c) an traɪɪŋ tu ˈɔ:gəˈnaɪzə `blʌdləs `ku: |
(d) əˈgeɪnst ði ɪ→ə´`lektɪd ˈgʌvənmənt əv ðə ˎdeɪˎdʌz ɪt
[At (a) ‘Hardly’ ends with /ɪ/ and ‘extends’ has no /d/. At (b) ‘restaurants’ has no /nts/ but ends with a nasal /ɔː/and final /z/.]
22.
(a) ˎjes bət ˈðæt ˎraɪt `hɑːdlɪ ɪk`stenz |
(b) tə kənspaɪrɪŋ ɪn tʃelsi ˏrestrɔ̃ːz |
(c) and traɪɪŋ tu ˈɔːgəˈnaɪz ə `blʌdləs `kuː |
(d) əˈgenst ði ə´`lektɪd ˈgʌvəmənt əv ðə ˎdeɪ ˎdʌz ɪt
“[a]nd” has a final /d/.
23 ||
wel naʊ lʊk `hɪəkɒnsəlteɪʃn dʌznt mi:n kən`spɪrəsi | əŋ `kwestʃənɪŋ ðə `gʌvən→mmənt ɪznt→d ə `krɪmɪnəl æk´tɪvɪtiː ´ɪz ɪt
[ 'doesnt' has no final /t/ and 'isnt' has its final /t/ replaced by a /d/ ]
23.
(a) wel naʊ lʊk `hɪə |
(b) kɒnslteɪʃn dʌzn miːn kən`spɪrəsi |
(c) ən `kwestʃənɪŋ ðə `gʌvəmmənd ɪznd ə `krɪmɪnəl æk´tɪvɪti ´ɪz ɪt |
“and questioning”: the /n/ of “and” is not assimilated to the following /k/. The final consonants of both “government” and “isn’t” are pronounced as /d/ rather than /t/; “activity” ends in  the happY vowel.
24 ||
(a) wi `nəʊ wɒtʃu(v) bɪ→iːn ˏʌp tuː |
(b) ən ˈmaɪ ədˎvaɪsɒn ˈðæt lɪtl ˈventʃəɪz |
(c) ˈpæk ɪt ˎɪn |
(d) ɪt ˈwəʊnt ˎwɜ:k | ɪtəl ˈɔ:l ˈend ɪn ˎtɪəz.
[At (a) the word  'been' is pronounced /biːn/ not /bɪn/ and the final word 'to' has a long vowel /tuː/.]
24.
(a) wi `nəʊ wɒtʃu biːn ˏʌp tuː |
(b) ən ˈmaɪ ədˎvaɪs ɒn ˈðæt lɪtl ˈventʃər ɪz |
(c) ˈpæk ɪt ˎɪn |
(d) ɪt ˈwəʊnt ˎwɜːk | ɪtəl ˈɔːl ˈend ɪn ˎtɪəz |
A linking r is to be heard at the end of “venture” followed by a glottal stop before “is”.
25 ||
(a) ɜ:kət ˈwɒt ə ju `fraɪtənd ɒv |
(b) ˈɪf maɪ ˈvju:z ə ˏrɒŋðeɪl bi `si:n tə bi rɒŋ ˏwəʊnt ðeɪ |
(c) ən ɪf ðeə `nɒt rɒŋðen ðeɪ `ʃʊd bi ˏhɜ:d |
(d) ən ðen ju ʃəd `welkəm ðəm ´ʃʊdntʃu
25.
(a) ɜːkət ˈwɒt ə ju `fraɪtənd ɒv |
(b) ˈɪf maɪ ˈvjuːz ə ˏrɒŋ ðeɪl bi `siːn tə bi rɒŋ ˏwəʊnt ðeɪ |
(c) ən ɪf ðeə `nɒt rɒŋ ðen ðeɪ `ʃʊd bi ˏhɜːd |
(d) ən ðen ju ʃəd `welkəm ðəm ´ʃʊdntʃu |
26 || aɪ ˈʌndəˈstændjɔ: prəpeərɪŋ ə telə`vɪʒn prəʊgræm naʊ | ˈmeɪ aɪ si: ə ˈkɒpi əv ðə ˏtekst
26.
aɪ ˈʌndəˈstænd jʊə prəperɪŋ ə telə`vɪʒn prəʊgræm naʊ | ˈmeɪ aɪ siː ə ˈkɒpi əv ðə ˎtekst |
“[y]ou’re” has the CURE vowel; I don’t hear a diphthong in the medial syllable of “preparing”; there’s a low fall on “text”.
27 || ˎnəʊ | ˈ(t)stɪl ɪm ˈprepəˏreɪʃn
27.
ˏnəʊ | ˈstɪl ɪn ˈprepəˏreɪʃn |
The voice rises on “no”; there’s no assimilation at the word boundary between “in” and “preparation”.
28 || aɪ ʃʊd θɪŋk `veri ˏkeəfliəbaʊt ɔ:l ˈðɪsɪf aɪ wə ´ju: sɜ:
28.
aɪ ʃʊd θɪŋk `veri ˏkeəfli əbaʊt ɔːl ˈðɪs ɪf aɪ wə ´juː sɜː |
29 || wel dʒu nəʊaɪ `hæv dʌn praɪm ˏmɪnɪstə | ə→æn aɪ ʃəl kənˈtɪnju tə `du: səʊ
[ 'and' is /æn/ not /ən/.]
29.
wel dʒu nəʊ aɪ `hæv dʌn praɪm ˏmɪnɪstə | æn aɪ ʃəl kənˈtɪnju tə `duː səʊ |
30 ||
(a) ˈwɒt aɪ wəd prɪˈfɜ:r əf ˏkɔ:s |
(b) ɪz ðət id gɪv ʌp θɪŋkɪŋ ɔ:l təˎgeðə |
(c) ˈkɪŋzɑ:nt sə`pəʊs tə θɪŋk |
(d) ɪt wəz ə ˈgreɪt mɪ→əˎsteɪksendɪŋ ɪm tə ju:nɪ→əˎvɜ:sɪ→əti |
(e) ən ˈletɪŋ ɪm ˈtɔ:ktu ˈɔ:l ðəʊz ˎɑ:kɪteks ən fə`lɒsəfəz |
(f) ən ˈkʌmli ˈjʌŋ blæk ˏæktɪ→əvɪsts
At (c) the word 'mistake' has for first vowel /ə/ not /ɪ/. At 'university' its second and fourth vowels are /ə/ not /ɪ/.
30.
(a) ˈwɒt aɪ wəd prɪˈfɜːr əf ˏkɔːs |
(b) ɪz ðət id gɪv ʌp θɪŋkɪŋ ɔːl təˎgeðə |
(c) ˈkɪŋz ɑːnt s`pəʊs tə θɪŋk |
(d) ɪt wəz ə ˈgreɪt məˎsteɪk sendɪŋ ɪm tə juːnəˎvɜːsətɪ |
(e) ən ˈletɪŋ ɪm ˈtɔːk tu ˈɔːl ðəʊz ˎɑːkɪtekts ən fə`lɒsəfəz |
(f) ən ˈkʌmli ˈjʌŋ blæk ˏæktəvɪsts |
“Kings” has no /g/; “university” has a schwa as a second and fourth vowel and a KIT vowel in the ultima. The 2nd vowel in “activists” is also a schwa.
31 || `θæŋk ju mɪs kɑ:ˏmaɪkəl
31.
`θæŋk ju mɪs kɑːˏmaɪkəl |
32 || `pleʒə praɪm ˎmɪnɪstə
32.
`pleʒə pʁaɪm ˎmɪnɪstə
The speaker uses a velar/uvular [ʁ] in “Prime”.
33 ||
(a) hiz bɪkʌm ˈfɑ: tu: ˈfɒndəv ðə saʊnd əv hɪz əʊn ˎvɔɪs ['his' has no /h/] |
(b) ðə ˈtrʌbl `ˏɪz`ʌðə pi:pl si:m tu ˏlaɪk ɪt `tu: |
(c) aɪ ˈdu: ˎheɪt kɒnfrənˏteɪʃnz |
(d) ˈsʌmbədiˈɔ:lwɪzˈenz ˈʌpgetɪŋ ˎhɜ:t |
(e) ˈtaɪmfər ə ˈvɪzɪt tə ðə ˈhaʊs əv ˈwu:ndɪd `fi:lɪŋ...
33.
(a) hiz bɪkʌm ˈfɑː tuː ˈfɒnd əv ðə saʊnd əv ɪz əʊn ˎvɔɪs  |
(b) ðə ˈtrʌbl `ˏɪz `ʌðə piːpl siːm tu ˏlaɪk ɪt `tuː |
(c) aɪ ˈduː ˎheɪt kɒnfrənˏteɪʃnz |
(d) ˈsʌmbədi ˈɔːlwɪz ˈenz ˈʌp getɪŋ ˎhɜːt |
(e) ˈtaɪm fər ə ˈvɪzɪt tə ðə ˈhaʊs əv ˈwuːndɪd `fiːlɪŋ |
34 || wi ˈhæf→vtə ki:p ɑ: `ɒpʃənz ˏəʊpən
[ 'have' is not /hæf/ but /hæv/].
34.
wi ˈhæv tə ki:p ɑə `ɒpʃənz ˏəʊpən


Marked in red are differences either between me and Jack's version or Ms Kozikowska's transcription.